Some sort of railed or tubed transport system - like a subway or Musk's Hyperloop - would make sense if it was all in the same geogrpahical location or had some form of physical link between locations.
I phear you're thinking too small. Space is big. Disaster aside, there's multiple good reasons to not concentrate the entire nation to one tiny physical spot. You'd likely want to have valid station/outpost designs before you consider how to integrate transport solutions. Or more sensibly, the transport solution be an integral part of the design.
"Hyperloop" wouldn't be anything like "turbolift" - Hyperloop would be closer in analogy to trains. Turbolift, lacking a non-fiction simile, would be akin to Wonka's glass elevator briefly touched upon in "Charlie and the chocolate factory", and more heavily in the sequal book. It doesn't just move up/down, but laterally also.
As a pure hypothetical construct, consider a collection - for sake of example, six - orbital stations, with an approximate habitation capacity of 200,000 ⃗ 250,000 people a peice(before upgrades). These are unlikely to be small structures, and transportation inside almost essential. Design dependant, it could mostly have needs met by a combination of elevators, escalators, moving walkways, and some sort of train type affair.
Transportation between these could be acheived electronically and cheaply by use of centrafugal launchers. They can spin a payload up and release it at the "right" part of it's arc in order to add/reduce relative velocity and thusly either catch up with the station in "front" or allow the one "behind" to catch it up. Six evenly spaced at an orbital distance of about 150,000 meters should allow for minimal energy to be added/removed from velocity and still result in reasonably short travel times, station ⃗station in about 35-45mins or so. It could be done faster if using propulsion to slow down/speed up closer to destination, or delivering cargo that's less sensitive to sudden changes in G.
Such launchers could cheaply provide for distance transport of people and cargo alike. With a network of them cunningly placed, it should be possible to put anything, anywhere, in a semi-reasonable amount of time. The "pods" it throws could in theory could be highly modular, and thusly fit for mulitple purposes. With sufficient heat sheilding and decent arrest technology(ie: parachute) it's feasibly possible to throw people and cargo to any spot on the planets surface, too.
Q-thrusters would also protentially be a viable propulsion source for various things, including personell and cargo - but comes with a higher energy cost. Possibly more sensible to use on asteroid tugs and other situations where the low, but constant, specific impulse will add up over time.